NWEA uses a mix of approaches — including negotiation, litigation, education, community organizing, and advocacy — to obtain the best outcome for people and the environment:
Some of NWEA’s accomplishments include:
Northwest Environmental Advocates was founded in 1969 by citizens who were concerned about the imminent operation of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, located along the Columbia River at Rainier, Oregon. The all-volunteer organization quickly became involved in Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing hearings for the construction of reactors elsewhere in Oregon and Washington. After Trojan began operation, NWEA became the most active organization in the country working to shut down an operating nuclear reactor. In addition to publicizing safety problems at the plant, NWEA intervened in licensing proceedings to stop the expansion of storage of spent nuclear fuel at Trojan and to determine how to fix the reactor’s failure to meet federal earthquake standards. After years of raising safety issues with federal and state agencies, and sharing information with the public, NWEA worked with the plant’s owner-operators Portland General Electric (PGE) to close the reactor in 1993.
In 1988, NWEA made Columbia River water quality a regional issue by demonstrating that the states of Oregon and Washington largely ignored the interstate portion of the river, including its estuary. For seven years, NWEA conducted a regional campaign to designate the Columbia River Estuary as part of the National Estuary Program (NEP). In 1990, the States of Oregon and Washington, along with the public ports and the pulp and paper industry obtained support of the state legislatures to fund an alternative to this federal program. Called the Lower Columbia River Bi-State Program on Water Quality, NWEA’s Executive Director Nina Bell co-chaired the $2.4 million dollar study. Subsequently, when funding ran out, the states agreed to NEP designation, a program now called the Lower Columbia River Estuary Program (LCREP). However, the states prevented NWEA from participating, knowing that it would have been the most effective environmental organization.
Since 1990, NWEA has pursued many other avenues to restoring the region’s waters including lawsuits to stop Portland’s raw sewage discharges, lawsuits to force the states to develop clean-up plans for waters with unsafe levels of pollution, and challenges to the proposed deepening of the Columbia and Willamette River shipping channels. NWEA has also been active in developing national rules and policies to support full implementation of the federal Clean Water Act.
Clean air has also been a priority. NWEA works to replace fossil fuels (oil, coal, and gas) with renewable energy resources because fossil fuels create unsafe air pollution in the region and contribute to global climate change. NWEA has been active in seeking the clean-up or shutdown of the Centralia Coal Plan, worked to ensure carbon dioxide mitigation for new natural gas facilities, and to create a range of programs that will stimulate the development of renewable energy sources. These efforts to provide the public with clean energy sources include working with public and private utilities around the region on “green marketing” approaches.
Northwest Environmental Advocates has a history of 30 years of accomplishments. Here is a short chronology:
In 1969, established as the “Coalition for Safe Power” to work against operation of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, Rainier, Oregon.
In 1970-75, intervened as a formal party in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state licensing proceedings for construction of the Pebble Springs Nuclear Plants (Arlington, OR) and NRC hearings for the Skagit Nuclear Plant (Sedro Woolley, WA). Opposed rate increases to fund nuclear reactors before the Oregon Public Utilities Commission.
In 1976, intervened as a formal party in Nuclear Regulatory Commission proceedings to oppose the expansion of capacity at the Trojan Spent Fuel Pool (Rainier, OR).
In 1977, intervened as a formal party in public hearings regarding the failure to design and construct the Trojan Nuclear Plant to earthquake standards and raised safety issues that had not been addressed when the plant received an operating license.
In 1978, obtained nine-month shutdown of Trojan Nuclear Plant while it was repaired for earthquake hazards and raised issues about inadequate fire protection in electrical systems at the plant based on a statement by Robert D. Pollard, former NRC federal inspector at Trojan.
In 1979, petitioned the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to maintain the shutdown of the Trojan Nuclear Plant due to problems with inability of pipes and safety equipment to withstand earthquakes and problems with its Emergency Core Cooling System. Petitioned the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council to shut down Trojan.
In 1980, following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens, petitioned the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to shut down the Trojan Nuclear Plant due to inadequate ability to evacuate people during a natural disaster combined with the effects of ash on its ability to operate safely.
In 1981, raised issues of personnel error and several hundred pieces of electrical equipment that might malfunction at the Trojan Nuclear Plant with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Filed petition to Nuclear Regulatory Commission to prevent extension of construction completion dates for WPPSS Nuclear Plants Nos. 1 & 4 (Hanford). Filed petition to revoke the construction permit for WPPSS No. 4 based on a material false statement by the utility.
In 1982, petitioned the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to revoke the construction permits of the WPPSS Nos. 2, 4 & 5 nuclear reactors (Hanford, Satsop). Intervened as formal parties to operating license proceedings for WPPSS No. 1 & 3 nuclear plants (Hanford, Satsop). Intervened in construction permit proceedings for the Skagit/Hanford nuclear reactors.
In 1983, sued Portland General Electric for charging ratepayers for abandoned nuclear reactors. Opposed use of the Hanford Reservation for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project which would have been the nation’s first nuclear waste depository. Petitioned the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to deny operating license to the WPPSS No. 2 Nuclear Reactor (Hanford, WA) for mismanagement, construction defects, and safety problems.
In 1984, brought class action suit against utilities and regulators for putting abandoned nuclear plant costs in rates.
In 1985, challenged Pacific Power & Light for charging ratepayers for abandoned nuclear power plants.
In 1986, settled lawsuit against Pacific Power, creating the Albina Community Bank for low- and moderate-income residents of North/Northeast Portland (OR). Sued U.S. Department of Energy challenging its selection of Hanford as one of three nuclear waste dumps.
In 1987, brought about the closure of the N-Reactor at Hanford, a one-of-a-kind energy- and plutonium-generating nuclear reactor with no containment, following Congressional hearings with three NWEA experts after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the Soviet Union. Joined with members of Congress and other organizations to sue U.S. Department of Energy because its EIS for the N-Reactor was inadequate.
In 1988, made the environmental quality of the Columbia River a major regional issue through regional organizing and the issuance of Water Quality in the Columbia Gorge; A Preliminary Investigation, the first-ever report on water quality of the Columbia River.
In 1989, persuaded the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality to bring hazardous waste users into the regulatory system. Assisted in the creation of the National Whistleblower Center, now a successful national organization. Defeated proposed urban incinerator for PCB wastes.
In 1990, stopped a proposed dioxin-emitting pulp mill on the Columbia River through the administrative process and citizen organizing. In response to NWEA organizing, Oregon and Washington created the $2.4 million Bi-State Lower Columbia River Water Quality Study, co-chaired by NWEA’s Executive Director Nina Bell.
In 1991, forced the City of Portland to commit to a 20-year plan to stop discharging over 6 billion gallons of raw sewage each year to the Willamette River and Columbia Slough. Launched the Columbia/Willamette RiverWatch Program that took people on boat tours of the Willamette and Columbia Rivers.
In 1992, published the environmental map, Portland/Vancouver: Toxic Waters. Installed warning signs on highly polluted urban waters and produced a multi-lingual fish consumption brochure.
In 1993, published and distributed the highly acclaimed environmental map, Columbia River: Troubled Waters. Organized the Ancient Forest Rally & Celebration of 75,000 people in Portland. Helped bring about the closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant.
In 1994, obtained the Superfund-style clean-up of toxic sediments in the Columbia Slough through threatened RCRA lawsuit against the City of Portland.
In 1995, negotiated water quality standards to protect salmon and compelled Oregon to identify 1,000 waterbodies that require mandatory pollution restrictions. Obtained utility commitment to 36 megawatts of wind energy.
In 1996, won national legal precedent on citizens’ enforcement of water quality standards in NWEA v. Portland. Published the Air Pollution Action Guide to Northwest Portland.
In 1997, settled lawsuit to compel Washington to develop TMDL clean-up plans for over 600 waterbodies with unsafe levels of pollution and/or habitat damage. Participated in federal advisory committee on EPA’s TMDL program. Developed the first-of-its-kind Oregon CO2 Standard passed by the Oregon Legislature to offset greenhouse gases from new fossil fuel facilities and which led to the establishment of the Oregon Climate Trust.
In 1998, negotiated strong new federal regulations governing Clean Water clean-up program. Filed lawsuit against three government agencies and obtained commitment to clean-up emissions from Centralia Coal Plant, the largest source of sulphur dioxide in the West
In 1999, filed petition with EPA seeking regulation of ballast water discharges from ships carrying exotic species. Utilities agreed to develop green marketing program with NWEA, “Renew 2000.”
In 2000, filed lawsuit challenging National Marine Fisheries Service review of the proposed Columbia River channel deepening project which led to its rescinding the approval.
In 2001, forced EPA to respond to NWEA’s ballast water petition. Began participation in Oregon advisory committee on Willamette TMDLs. Challenged EPA’s approval of Oregon’s temperature standards.
In 2002, actively participated in advisory committee to update Oregon’s toxic criteria.
In 2003, successfully challenged EPA’s denial of NWEA’s ballast water petition. Court invalidated Oregon’s alternate mixing zone rule and most of its temperature standards for the protection of salmon. Successfully promoted Superfund designation of Portland Harbor.
In 2004, filed lawsuit challenging the National Marine Fisheries Service review of and the Army Corps of Engineers proposal to deepen the Columbia River shipping channel. Oregon issued new temperature standards pursuant to NWEA litigation.
In 2005, obtained legal victory deeming EPA’s refusal to regulate ship discharges contrary to the Clean Water Act. Filed second lawsuit challenging Oregon’s temperature standards and antidegradation policy as inadequate to protect salmon.
In 2006, federal court ordered EPA to remove permit exemption from ships within two years pursuant to NWEA’s lawsuit. Filed Data Quality Act request for correction to Army Corps of Engineers.
In 2007, settled case against EPA for its failure to act on Oregon’s 2004 toxic criteria. Began developing case to reform Oregon’s inadequate logging practices.
In 2008, successfully fought attempts by the shipping industry and the National Wildlife Federation to overturn our court case forcing EPA to issue water discharge permits to ships. Ships first regulated under the Clean Water Act as result of NWEA litigation. Working with Oregon municipalities, convinced Oregon’s Environmental Quality Commission to address nonpoint sources in new toxic standards.
In 2009, pressed Oregon to adopt controls of nonpoint sources in its water quality standards. Challenged EPA’s Vessel General Permit as inconsistent with the Clean Water Act. Settled lawsuit against EPA regarding compliance schedules for Oregon discharge permits. Actively participated in Oregon advisory committees on toxic standards.
In 2010, settled lawsuit against EPA and NOAA to reform Oregon’s coastal logging practices. Settled lawsuit against National Marine Fisheries Service and US Fish & Wildlife Service in which they agreed to complete endangered species consultation of Oregon water quality standards for toxics. Forced EPA to disapprove Oregon’s 2004 toxic criteria for human health and to reject Oregon’s proposed changes to arsenic criteria.
In 2011, settled lawsuit against EPA to improve next Vessel General Permit to control invasive species discharged in ballast water. Challenged 20-year extension of operating license for the WPPSS No. 2 (Columbia Generating Station) nuclear power plant at Hanford, Washington based on the nuclear accident at Fukishima, Japan. Worked to defeat Oregon legislation letting agriculture off the hook for water quality. Completed participation in Oregon toxic standards rulemaking.
In 2012, worked to implement settlement to reform Oregon’s logging practices. Won lawsuit challenging Oregon’s water quality standards for temperature. Filed amicus brief with U.S. Supreme Court on NEDC v. Brown logging roads case. Stopped sewage sludge disposal on Roseburg ranch. Petitioned Oregon to protect threatened and endangered species from pesticide spraying. Sued EPA for its approval of Oregon temperature and mercury TMDL clean-up plans. Stopped herbicide spraying in Fairview Lake.
The Environmental Restoration Program addresses the needs of human health, fish, and wildlife, in Oregon and Washington, at the national level, and at specific sites. These are some of the activities in which NWEA is currently active:
Working with Others
Education and Community Organizing
Nina Bell has been NWEA’s Executive Director for over 20 years. Specializing in implementation of Clean Water Act programs, she guides the organization’s litigation and represents environmental interests in regional and national negotiations.
Please feel free to contact us.
NWEA derives its income from a variety of sources including membership contributions, foundation grants, events, publication sales, business, and in-kind contributions. As a non-profit organization with IRS 501(c)(3) status, we rely upon members and contributors for our support. Please consider joining NWEA as a member today.